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Hannes admits that the "rapid rise in the income of the super-rich of the world" is true, but doesn't view this trend as being a problem so long as the poor do not get poorer. Diverting more resources from the voluntary, "generally efficient" private sector and into the coercive, "generally inefficient" government sector, he says, was a bad trade-off, especially for poorer people. Lawrence Summers criticizes Piketty for underestimating the diminishing returns on capital, which he believes will offset the return on capital and hence set an upper limit to inequality.
Summers challenges another of Piketty's assumptions: A declining ratio of savings to wealth would also set upper limits on inequality in society. James K. Galbraith criticizes Piketty for using "an empirical measure that is unrelated to productive physical capital and whose dollar value depends, in part, on the return on capital.
Where does the rate of return come from? Piketty never says". Galbraith also says: Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson used the economic histories of Sweden and South Africa to show that social inequality depends much more on institutional factors than Piketty's factors like the difference between rate of return and growth. The professors write that general laws, which is how they characterize Piketty's postulations, "are unhelpful as a guide to understand the past or predict the future because they ignore the central role of political and economic institutions in shaping the evolution of technology and the distribution of resources in a society".
Paul Romer criticises that while the data and empirical analysis is presented with admirable clarity and precision, the theory is presented in less detail. In his opinion the work was written with the attitude "Empirical work is science; theory is entertainment" and therefore an example for Mathiness.
Lawrence Blume and Steven Durlauf criticized the book in the Journal of Political Economy for being "unpersuasive when it turns from description to analysis Both of us are very liberal in the contemporary as opposed to classical sense , and we regard ourselves as egalitarians.
We are therefore disturbed that Piketty has undermined the egalitarian case with weak empirical, analytical, and ethical arguments. German economist Stefan Homburg criticizes Piketty for equating wealth with capital. Homburg argues that wealth does not only embrace capital goods in the sense of produced means of production , but also land and other natural resources.
Homburg argues that observed increases in wealth income ratios reflect rising land prices and not an accumulation of machinery. Stiglitz endorses this view, pointing out that "a large fraction of the increase in wealth is an increase in the value of land, not in the amount of capital goods".
This idea is furthered by Matthew Rognlie , then a graduate student at M. Rognlie also found that "surging house prices are almost entirely responsible for growing returns on capital. Marxist academic David Harvey , while praising the book for demolishing "the widely-held view that free market capitalism spreads the wealth around and that it is the great bulwark for the defense of individual liberties and freedoms," is largely critical of Piketty for, among other things, his "mistaken definition of capital", which Harvey describes as:.
Piketty defines capital as the stock of all assets held by private individuals, corporations and governments that can be traded in the market no matter whether these assets are being used or not. And he has certainly not produced a working model for capital of the twenty-first century. For that, we still need Marx or his modern-day equivalent". Harvey also takes Piketty to task for dismissing Marx's Das Kapital without ever having read it. In a similar vein, philosopher Nicholas Vrousalis faults Piketty's remedies for misconstruing the kind of political "counter-agency" required to remove the inequalities Piketty criticizes and for thinking that they are compatible with capitalism.
Norwegian economist and journalist Maria Reinertsen compares the book to the book Counting on Marilyn Waring: On May 23, , Chris Giles, economics editor of the Financial Times FT , identified what he claims are "unexplained errors" in Piketty's data, in particular regarding wealth inequality increases since the s. The data The FT found mistakes and unexplained entries in his spreadsheets, similar to those which last year undermined the work on public debt and growth of Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff.
The central theme of Prof Piketty's work is that wealth inequalities are heading back up to levels last seen before the World War I. The investigation undercuts this claim, indicating there is little evidence in Prof Piketty's original sources to bear out the thesis that an increasing share of total wealth is held by the richest few. Piketty wrote a response defending his findings and arguing that subsequent studies he links to Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman 's March presentation, The Distribution of US Wealth, Capital Income and Returns since confirm his conclusions about increasing wealth inequality and actually show a greater increase in inequality for the United States than he does in his book.
The accusation received wide press coverage. For example, The Economist , a sister publication to the Financial Times , wrote:.
Mr Giles's analysis is impressive, and one certainly hopes that further work by Mr Giles, Mr Piketty or others will clarify whether mistakes have been made, how they came to be introduced and what their effects are.
Based on the information Mr Giles has provided so far, however, the analysis does not seem to support many of the allegations made by the FT , or the conclusion that the book's argument is wrong. Scott Winship, a sociologist at the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research and critic of Piketty, asserts the allegations are not "significant for the fundamental question of whether Piketty's thesis is right or not It's hard to think Piketty did something unethical when he put it up there for people like me to delve into his figures and find something that looks sketchy Piketty has been as good or better than anyone at both making all his data available and documenting what he does generally".
A study in Social Science History by University of California Riverside economic historian Richard Sutch concluded "that Piketty's data for the wealth share of the top 10 percent for the period to are unreliable Piketty's data for the top 1 percent of the distribution for the nineteenth century — are also unreliable The values Piketty reported for the twentieth century — are based on more solid ground, but have the disadvantage of muting the marked rise of inequality during the Roaring Twenties and the decline associated with the Great Depression.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Capital in the Twenty-First Century Hardcover edition.
Archived from the original PDF on 6 August Retrieved 6 August New York Times. Retrieved 29 January Piketty's 'Capital': How the French tome has rocked the tiny Harvard University Press. The New Republic. Retrieved 27 April France May 12, Retrieved July 31, Edsall , "Capitalism vs. The New York Times , 28 January Is surging inequality endemic to capitalism? Her download operated a plain river list where she was to delete form-factors.
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