Poisoning and drug overdose pdf

 

    Poisoning & Drug Overdose, 7e. Kent R. Olson, Ilene B. Anderson, Neal L. Benowitz, Paul D. Blanc, Richard F. Clark, Thomas E. Kearney, Susan Y. Kim- Katz. Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose is an ambitious work Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. Anxiety & Depression Workbook For Dummies® Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man.

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    Poisoning And Drug Overdose Pdf

    While reading this book I was on duty for the A&E department and looked up some of the more unusual conditions that presented that day. Brodie's abscess. Evaluation of Poisoning and Drug. Overdose. Kara Lynch, PhD, DABCC. University of California San Francisco. San Francisco, CA. Emergency department factsheets. What is an overdose? An overdose occurs when too much of a drug, medication or poison is taken, which may result in a.

    Opioid analgesic overdose is a preventable and potentially lethal condition that results from prescribing practices, inadequate understanding on the patient's part of the risks of medication misuse, errors in drug administration, and pharmaceutical abuse. First, opioid analgesic overdose can have life-threatening toxic effects in multiple organ systems. Second, normal pharmacokinetic properties are often disrupted during an overdose and can prolong intoxication dramatically. The number of opioid analgesic overdoses is proportional to the number of opioid prescriptions and the dose prescribed. Opioids increase activity at one or more G-protein—coupled transmembrane molecules, known as the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors, that develop operational diversity from splice variants, post-translational modification and scaffolding of gene products, and the formation of receptor heterodimers and homodimers. The mu opioid receptor is responsible for the preponderance of clinical effects caused by opioids. Studies in knockout mice confirm that agonism of these receptors mediates both analgesia and opioid dependence. Receptor desensitization, a critical event in the development of tolerance, is a highly conserved process that involves the uncoupling of the receptors from G-protein, and their subsequent entry into an intracellular compartment during endocytosis. The receptors may then be returned to the membrane in a process that resensitizes the cell to opioid binding. However, tolerance of the analgesic and respiratory depressive effects of opioids is not solely related to the desensitization of mu opioid receptors. Conditioned tolerance develops when patients learn to associate the reinforcing effect of opioids with environmental signals that reliably predict drug administration. The pharmacokinetics of particular opioid analgesic agents — their absorption, onset of action, clearance, and biologic half-life — are often irrelevant in overdose. For example, bezoars formed after large ingestions of pills may produce erratic rates of drug absorption, and the delayed gastric emptying and diminished gastrointestinal motility caused by opioids may prolong drug absorption. After absorption, most medications, including opioid analgesics, undergo first-order elimination pharmacokinetics, in which a constant fraction of the drug is converted by enzymatic processes per unit of time.

    Unintentional Drug Overdose Poisoning Project

    Notice that the greater proportion of males in poison exposures occurring in children younger than 13 years switches to a female predominance in teens and adults. Across all ages, there were poison exposures reported per , population. Across all ages, In children younger than 6 years, Cosmetics and personal care products lead the list of the most common substances implicated in pediatric exposures children younger than 6 years, NPDS, Cleaning substances and pain medications follow.

    These exposures are nearly always unintentional.

    Pain medications lead the list of the most common substances implicated in adult poison exposures 20 years old or older, NPDS, Sedatives and sleeping medications, antidepressants, and cardiovascular medications follow. These exposures are often intentional. Most Serious Poisonings?

    Frequency statistics are only a part of the poisoning story. To determine where to focus prevention efforts, we also need to know which poisonings are serious. The table below shows poisoning fatalities in children younger than 6 years reported to US Poison Control from through The substance categories with the largest number of deaths across all ages and including intentional exposures include sedatives and sleeping medications, opioids, stimulants and street drugs, and alcohols NPDS, How serious are poison exposures?

    Poison Statistics National Data

    Includes the National Poison Data System codes: no effect; minor effect; not followed, nontoxic; and not followed, minimally toxic. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.

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    Management of Opioid Analgesic Overdose

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